Distribution, Morphological Variation and New Variety of Baccaurea angulata Merr. (Phyllanthaceae)

Gunawan Gunawan, Tatik Chikmawati, Sobir Sobir, Sulistijorini Sulistijorini

Abstract


Gunawan, Tatik Chikmawati, Sobir & Sulistijorini.2018. Distribusi, Variasi Morfologi dan Varietas Baru dari Baccaurea angulata Merr. (Phyllanthaceae). Floribunda 6(1): 1–11. — Baccaurea angulata (belimbing merah) adalah jenis endemik di Kalimantan yang dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan pangan dan obat tradisional, namun sejauh ini informasi distribusi dan variasinya masih sangat terbatas. Penelitian ini bertujuan me-metakan lokasi-lokasi tumbuh pohon B. angulata, menggambarkan variasi morfologi, dan analisis fenetik B. angulata yang tumbuh di Kalimantan dan Pulau Natuna. Eksplorasi B. angulata dilakukan di Pulau Natuna dan  empat provinsi di Kalimantan (Barat, Timur, Tengah dan Selatan). Peta persebaran dibuat dengan pro-gram ArcGIS versi 10.3. Pola distribusi dianalisis menggunakan indeks Morishita. Data morfologi batang, daun, bunga, dan buah digunakan untuk analisis fenetik belimbing merah berdasarkan koefisien Simple Matching (SM) dengan metode UPGMA. B. angulata tersebar secara acak di Kalimantan Barat, Tengah dan Pulau Natuna, tetapi memiliki pola penyebaran mengelompok di Kalimantan Selatan dan Timur. Penemuan B. angulata di desa Ceruk dan Limau Manis di Pulau Natuna dengan nama lokal belimbing besi merupakan rekaman baru. Peta sebaran B. angulata di Kalimantan dan Pulau Natuna disediakan. Secara morfologi, B. angulata di Kalimantan dan Pulau Natuna bervariasi pada beberapa ciri yaitu tepi stipula, permukaan tangkai daun, warna tangkai perbungaan betina, dan bentuk buah. Analisis fenetik mengelompokkan seluruh sampel ke dalam tiga kelompok B. angulata berdasarkan 20 ciri morfologi dengan nilai keserupaan 53% sesuai dengan bentuk dan rasa buah. B. angulata dengan buah membulat diusulkan sebagai varietas baru dengan nama B. angulata Merr. var. globulus Gunawan.

Kata kunci: Baccaurea angulata, Kalimantan, Pulau Natuna, rekaman baru, varietas baru, Phy-llanthaceae.

 

Gunawan, Tatik Chikmawati, Sobir & Sulistijorini.2018. Distribution, Morphological Variation and New Variety of Baccaurea angulata Merr. (Phyllanthaceae). Floribunda 6(1): 1–11. — Baccaurea angulata (belimbing merah) is an endemic species of Borneo. Fruits of Baccaurea angulata are usually utilized as food and local medicine, but up to now the information about its distribution and variation is very scarce. The objectives of the research were to map the distribution, describe the morphological variation, and analyze the phenetics of B. angulata in Natuna Island and Indonesian Borneo, Kalimantan. B. angulata was explored in Natuna Island and four  Provinces of Kalimantan (West, East, Central, and South). The distribution was mapped using ArcGIS version 10.3. The distribution pattern was analyzed using the Morishita index. Morphological data of stem, leaves, flower and fruit were used to analyze the phenetics of B. angulata using Simple Matching coefficient, to construct a dendrogram using UPGMA  method. B. angulata is randomly distributed in the West and Central of Kalimantan, also in Natuna, but it has a clumped pattern in South and East Kalimantan. The presence of B. angulata in the Ceruk and Limau Manis villages in Natuna Island with local name belimbing besi is a new record. B. angulata is morphologically variable in several characters, i.e. stipule margin, petiole surface, pistillate peduncle colour, and fruit shape. Phenetic analysis based on 20 characters grouped all individuals into three groups with similarity index of 53% according to the shape and fruit taste. The  individuals of B. angulata with oval fruits are proposed to constitute a new variety, namely B. angulata Merr. var. globulus Gunawan.

Key words: Baccaurea angulata, Kalimantan, Natuna Island, new record, new variety, Phy-llanthaceae.

 


Keywords


Baccaurea angulata, Kalimantan, Natuna, new record, new variety

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.32556/floribunda.v6i1.2018.226

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